Selected Bibliography about Hikikomori: articles in English (1986-2012)

Selected Bibliography about Social Withdrawal (hikikomori) and School Absenteism (futôkô), from 1986 to 2012. All the references are academic articles, in English, except two in French and one in Italian.


Borovoy, Amy. 2008. “Japan’s hidden youths: Mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.” Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry (32): 52–56.

Chong, Stella Suk-ching, and Kar-Mon Chan. 2012. “A case study of a Chinese ‘hikikomorian’ in Canada – Theorizing the process of hikikomorization.” Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation: 99–114.

Furlong, Andy. 2008. “The Japanese hikikomori phenomenon: Acute social withdrawal among young people.” The Sociological Review 56 (309-325).

Futagami, Nôki, and Shirô Asano. 2006. “The ‘Integrated Community’, towards the Hikikomori Archipelago Japan. A dialogue between Asanou Shirou and Futagami Nouki (traduction John Junkerman).” The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.

Garcia-Campayo, J, M Alda, N Sobradiel, and B Sanz Abos. 2007. “A case report of hikikomori in Spain.” Medicina Clinica 129 (8): 318–319.

Guedj-Bourdiau, M. 2007. “Claustration à domicile de l’adolescent Hikikomori.” Annales Médico-Psychologiques 169: 668–673.

Hall Vogel, Suzanne. 2012. “Japanese Society under Stress. Diagnosis and prescription.” Asian Survey 52 (4): 687–713.

Hattori, Yiuchi. 2006. “Social Withdrawal in Japanese Youth : A Case Study of Thirty-Five Hikikomori Clients.” Journal of Trauma Practice 4 (3): 181–201.

Hirashima, N. 2001. “Psychopathology of social withdrawal in Japan.” Journal of the Japan Medical Association 44 (6): 260–262.

Honjo, S, Y Kasahara, and K Ohtaka,. 1992. “School refusal in Japan.” Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 55 (1): 29–32.

Honma, Hiroaki. 1992. “Truancy from the school’s perspective and how schools cope: School related problems and network activities.” Japanese Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (35): 357–362.

Horiguchi, Sachiko. 2011. “Coping with Hikikomori. Socially withrdawn youth and the Japanese Family.” In Home and Family in Japan. Continuity and Transformation. Routledge.

———. 2012. “Hikikomori: How private isolation caught the public Eye.” In A sociology of Japanese youth, from returnees to neet. Routledge.

Inui, Akio. 2005. “Why Freeter and NEET are Misunderstood : Recognizing the New Precarious Conditions of Japanese Youth.” Social Work and Society (3).

Itoh, Kohki. 2012. “Difficulties faced by hikikomori: From the life history in autobiographies and private papers.” Kwansei Gakuin Sociological Review: 137–141.

Kaneko, Sachiko. 2006. “Japan’s ‘Socially Withdrawn Youths’ and Time Constraints in Japanese Society: Management and conceptualization of time in a support group for hikikomori.” Time & Society (15): 233–249.

Kato, Takahiro, Takaoka Shinfuku, Norman Sartorius, and Shigenobu Kanba. 2011. “Are Japan’s hikikomori and depression in young people spreading abroad ?” The Lancet 378.

Kato, Takahiro, Masaru Tateno, Takaoka Shinfuku, Daisuke Fujisawa, Alan R. Teo, Norman Sartorius, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, and Ishida Tetsuya. 2011. “Does the hikikomori syndrome of social withdrawal exist outside Japan ? A preliminary international investigation.” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.

Kato, Takahiro, Wakako Umene-Nakano, and Toshikazu Saito with Tateno, Masaru, Woo Park Tae. 2012. “Hikikomori as a possible clinical term in psychiatry.” BMC Psychiatry (12): 169.

Kim, Jinkwan, Rapee Ronald M, Ja Oh Kyung, and Moon Hye-Shin. 2008. “Retrospective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustment in young adulthood: Cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students.” Journal of Adolescence (31): 543–563.

Kondo, Naoji, Motohiro Sakai, Yasukazu Kuroda, Yoshikazu Kiyota, Yuji Kitabata, and Mie Kurosawa. 2011. “General condition of hikikomori  (prolonged social withdrawal) in Japan: Psychiatric diagnosis and outcome in mental healths welfare centres.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry: 1–8.

Koshiba, Y. 2007. “A study of family functioning in Hikikomori.” Journal of Health Science of Hiroshima University 95 (101): 95–101.

Koyama, A, Y Miyake, N Kawakami, M Tsuchiya, H Tachimori, and T Takeshima, The World Mental Health Japan Survey Group 2002–2006. “Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of ‘hikikomori’ in a community population in Japan.” Psychiatry Research 176 (1): 69–74.

Krieg, Alexander, and Jane R Dickie. 2011. “Attachment and hikikomori: a psychosocial developmental model.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry: 1–12.

Lock, Margaret. 1986. “Plea for acceptance: School refusal syndrome in Japan.” Social Science & Medicine (23): 99–112.

Lyons, H.B. 2001. “Hikikomori and Youth Crime.” Crime and Justice International (17): 9–10.

Malagon,, A. 2010. “Hikikomori : a New Diagnosis or a Syndrome Associated With a Psychiatric Diagnosis ?” International Journal of Social Psychiatry 56 (5): 558–559.

Masataka, Nobuo. 2002. “Low anger-aggression and anxiety-withdrawal characteristic to preschoolers in Japanese society with ‘hikikomori’ is becoming a major social problem.” Early Education and Development (13): 187–199.

Miller, Aaron L. 2012. “Taibatsu. From educational solution to social problem to marginalized non-issue.” In A sociology of Japanese youth, from returnees to neet. Routledge.

Miller, Aaron L., and Tuuka Toivonen. 2010. “To Discipline or to Accomodate ? On the Rehabilitation of Japanese ‘Problem Youth’.” The Asia Pacific Journal.

Nagata, Toshihiko, Hisashi Yamada, Alan R. Teo, Chiho Yoshimura, Takenori Nakajima, and Irene Van Vielt. 2011. “Comorbid social withdrawal (hikikomori) in outpatients with social anxiety disorder: Clinical characteristics and treatment response in a case series.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry: 1–6.

Oghino, Tatsushi. 2004. “Managing categorization and social withdrawal in Japan : Rehabilitation process in a private support group for Hikikomorians.” International Journal of Japanese Sociology (13): 120–133.

Outake, Tomoko. 2011. “French researchers seek «raison d’être» of hikikomori.” Japan Times,, November.

Ricci, Carla. 2009. Hikikomori. Narrazioni da una porta chiusa. Aracne.

Sakai, Motohiro, Shin.Ichi Ishikawa, Mizue Takizawa, Hiroshi Sato, and Yuji Sakano. 2004. “The State of Hikikomori from a Family’s Point of View: Statistical Survey and the Role of Psychological Intervention.” Japanese Journal of Counseling Science (37): 168–179.

Sakamoto, Noriyuki, Rodger R. Martin, Hiroaki Kumano, Kuboki Tomifusa, and Samir Al-Adawi. 2005. “Hikikomori, Is it A Culture-Reactive or Culture-Bound Syndrome? Nidotherapy And A Clinical Vignette from Oman.” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine (35): 191–198.

Shimizu, Katsunobu. 2011. “Defining and Interpreting Absence from School: The Debate in Ministerial Discourses in Japan.” Social Science Japan Journal 14 (2): 165–187.

Suwa, Mami. 2012. “Hikikomori and Japanese Culture. Possible contributing factors of Hikikomori.” Kenkô iryô kagaku kenkyû (2): 85–88.

Suwa, Mami, and Koichi Hara. 2007. “Hikikomori among young adults in Japan. The importance of differential diagnosis between primary Hikikomori and Hikikomori with High-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders.” Iryô fukushi kenkyû (3): 94–101.

Suwa, Mami, Kunifumi Suzuki, Koichi Hara, Hisashi Watanabe, and Toshihiko Takahashi. 2003. “Family features in primary social withdrawal among young adults.” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (57): 586–594.

Suzuki, Kunifumi. 2009. “A propos du phénomène de Hikikomori.” Abstract psychiatrie (41): 4–5.

Teo, Alan R. 2010. “A New Form of social withdrawal in Japan: a review of hikikomori.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry 56 (2): 178–185.

———. 2012a. “Social isolation associated with depression: A case report of hikikomori.” International Journal of Social Psychiatry: 1–3.

———. 2012b. “Connecting the dots among hikikomori, loneliness, social support, and social networks.” In The 108th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology, 364. Sapporo, Hokkaido.

Teo, Alan R., and Albert R. Gaw. 2010. “Hikikomori, a Japanese Culture-Bound Syndrome of Social Withdrawal? A Proposal for DSM-5.” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198 (6): 444–449.

Toivonen, Tuuka. 2008. “Introducing the Youth Independence Camp. How a new social policy is reconfiguring the public-private boundaries of social provision in Japan.” Sociologos (32): 42–57.

———. 2012. “NEETs.The strategy within the category.” In A sociology of Japanese youth, from returnees to neet. Routledge.

Toivonen, Tuuka, Vinai Norasakkunkit, and Yukiko Uchida. 2011. “Unable to conform, unwilling to rebel ? Youth, culture, and motivation in globalizing Japan.” Frontiers in Psychology 2: 207.

Uchida, Chiyoko. 2010. “Apathetic and withdrawing Students in Japanese Universities – with regard to Hikikomori and Student Apathy-.” Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences (57): 95–108.

Uchida, Yukiko, and Vinai Norasakkunkit. 2011. “Psychological Consequences of Postindustrial Anomie on Self and Motivation Among Japanese Youth.” Journal of Social Issues 67 (4): 774–786.

Umeda, Maki, and Noriko Kawakami, The World Mental Health Survey Group 2002-2006. 2012. “Association of childhood family environments with the risk of social withdrawal (‘hikikomori’) in the community population in Japan.” Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (66): 121–129.

Watts, Jonathan. 2002. “Public health experts concerned about ‘hikikomori’.” The Lancet: 359.

Wilson, Scott. 2010. “Braindance of the Hikikomori: towards a return to speculative Psychoanalysis.” Paragraph 33 (3): 392–409.

Wong, Victor. 2009. “Youth locked in time and space ? Defining features of social withdrawal and practice implications.” Journal of Social Work Practice (23): 337–352.

Yoneyama, Shoko. 2000. “Student Discourse on Tokokyohi (School Phobia/Refusal) in Japan, Burnout or empowerment ?” British Journal of Sociology of Education 21 (1): 77–94.

Zielezinger, Michael. 2007. Shutting out the sun. How Japan created its own lost generation. New York: Vintage Books.

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