Taijin kyôfushô (DSM-5)

Taijin kyôfushô as it appears in the fifth version of DSM

Taijin kyôfushô (”interpersonal fear disorder in Japanese”) is a cultural syndrome characterized by anxiety about and avoidance of interpersonal situations due to the thought, feeling, or conviction that one’s appearance and actions in social interactions are inadequate or offensive to others. In the United States, the variant involves having an offensive body odor and is termed olfactory reference syndrome. Individuals with taijin kyôfushô tend to focus on the impact of their symptoms and behaviors on others. Variants include major concerns about facial blushing (erythrophobia), having an offensive body odor (olfactory reference syndrome), innapropriate gaze (too much or too little eye contact), stiff or awkward facial expression or bodily movements (e.g., stiffening, trembling), or body deformity.

Taijin kyôfushô is a broader construct than social anxiety disorder in DSM-5. In addition to performance anxiety, taijin kyôfushô includes two culture-related forms : a ”sensitive type,” with extreme social sensitivity and anxiety about interpersonal interactions, and an ”offensive type,” in wich the major concern is offending others. As a category, taijin kyôfushô thus includes syndromes with features of body dysmorphic disorder as well as delusional disorder. Concerns may have a delusional quality, responding poorly to simple reassurance or counterexample.

The distinctive symptoms of taijin kyôfushô occur in specific cultural contexts and, to some extent, with more severe social anxiety across cultures. Similar syndromes are found in Korea and other societies that place a strong emphasis on the self-conscious maintenance of appropriate social behavior in hierarchical interpersonal relationships. Taijin kyôfushô-like symptoms have also been described in other cultural contexts, including the United States, Australia , and New Zealand.

Related conditions in other cultural contexts : taein kong po in Korea.

Related conditions in DSM-5 : social anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, delusional disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, olfactory reference syndrome (a type of other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder). Olfactory reference syndrome is related specifically to the jikoshû-kyôfu variant of taijin kyôfushô, whose core symptom is the concern that the person emits an offensive body odor. This presentation is seen in various cultures outside Japan. » (APA 2013 : 837)

PS :

対人恐怖症 taijin kyôfushô

自己臭恐怖 jikoshû kyôfu

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